The singer performed for judges Simon Cowell, Cheryl, Louis Walsh and guest judge Natalie Imbruglia in 2010.
The then 16-year-old student performed a cover of Cry Me A River which got him four yeses.
Liam went on to become one-fifth of One Direction at bootcamp and the rest is history.
Reflecting on the audition on social media, Liam said: "It’s been 10 years today since my X factor audition... and I just read that my first album just hit over 2 billion streams... that scared young man didn’t think that was gunna happen.
"Seriously thank you everyone who’s made this decade of my life possible and to everyone who’s listening thank you for enjoying my music and my bands too"
He added alongside a picture from his performance: "p.s. thanks also, for putting up with some awful haircuts like the one above"
2010 wasn't Liam's first audition for The X Factor of course.
He originally appeared on the show in 2008, getting as far as judges' houses.
As well as propelling him to international stardom, The X Factor is also the first time Liam met Cheryl.
The pair went on to start dating in 2016 and welcomed a baby son, Bear, in 2017. They split in 2018.